Blood testing 血液檢驗

Common markers for diagnosis and assessment of viral hepatitis
常見用於診斷及評估病毒性肝炎的指標

Marker
指標
Clinical interpretation for a positive result
陽性測試結果的臨床意義
To be included in the household survey
住戶調查中包含的測試
Anti-HAV
甲型肝炎抗體
Past or present infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) or vaccination against HAV
現在或過去曾感染甲型肝炎病毒 或 曾接種甲型肝炎疫苗
HBsAg
乙型肝炎表面抗原
Presence of hepatitis B virus infection
感染了乙型肝炎病毒
HBeAg
乙型肝炎 e 抗原
Active replication of hepatitis B virus in an infected person; Marker of high infectivity
乙型肝炎病毒在患者體內活躍地複製,是高傳染性的指標
Anti-HBs
乙型肝炎表面抗體
Protection from hepatitis B virus infection acquired by recovery from infection or vaccination
對乙型肝炎病毒免疫,免疫力可源自感染後痊癒或疫苗接種所致
Anti-HBe
乙型肝炎 e 抗體
Low replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in an infected person if viral load is low;
Infection with HBV variants if viral load is high
若患者的乙型肝炎病毒載量為低,陽性結果表示乙肝病毒在患者體內緩慢地複製;
若患者的乙型肝炎病毒載量為高,陽性結果表示患者可能已感染某些變異的乙肝病毒
Anti-HBc
乙型肝炎核心抗體
Previous or ongoing natural infection with hepatitis B virus
現在或過去曾感染乙型肝炎病毒
Anti-HCV
丙型肝炎抗體
Active or past hepatitis C virus infection
現在或過去曾感染丙型肝炎病毒
Anti-HDV
丁型肝炎抗體
Acute or chronic infection with hepatitis D virus
急性或慢性的丁型肝炎病毒感染
Anti-HEV
戊型肝炎抗體
Past or present infection with hepatitis E virus
現在或過去曾感染戊型肝炎病毒

 

Sampling methods

To diagnose hepatitis virus infection, a test for virus and immunity markers is normally performed on a blood sample, which can be collected by venepuncture or fingerstick.

  • Venepuncture sampling

    Venepuncture is a common way to collect blood from adults. Blood collection usually takes place from a superficial vein in the upper limb. The venepuncture procedure is performed by medical professionals or trained phlebotomists.

  • Fingerstick sampling

    Fingerstick sampling involves taking a small amount of blood from the end of a finger by using a lancet. Blood can be collected into a microtube or spotted onto a filter paper card to air-dry before testing. This approach is much simpler than the venepuncture procedure and the collection of blood specimens can be self-administrated under clear instructions. Owing to its simplicity and minimal invasiveness, dried blood spot samples have been used for screening some common infectious diseases.

採血方式

要診斷是否感染了肝炎病毒,一般需要透過靜脈穿刺或手指穿刺方式收集血液樣本,以便對病毒及免疫指標進行測試。

  • 靜脈穿刺採樣 (抽血)

    靜脈穿刺是常用收集血液樣本的方法,一般在肘部彎曲處近表皮的靜脈抽取血液樣本。靜脈穿刺須由專業的醫護人員或經訓練的抽血員進行。

  • 手指穿刺採樣(篤手指)

    手指穿刺採樣是利用刺針在指頭作穿刺,然後以微型收集管收取少量血液 或 將血液點滴在濾紙上風乾,以便之後進行測試。手指穿刺採樣的程序比靜脈穿刺簡單,在清晰指示下,測試者可自行收集血液樣本。因為手指穿刺採樣相對簡單及低入侵性,利用乾血點樣本篩查一些常見的傳染病也愈見普遍。